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General ship layout and various systems

General ship layout and various systems

Shown here are diagrams of the general layout of the vessel (compartments, equipment) and various systems (air compressor, seawater system, fresh water system, electricity supply organization)

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10.09.2021

Lighting systems

Lighting systems are designed and installed for several purpos­es and in accordance with to dif­ferent requirements. 
Examples of lighting systems are work-lighting where the type of work determines the light­ing level, orientation-lighting to guide the way without disturb­ing others and emergency light­ing and low level escape lighting for abandoning spaces in case of emergency.

    1.  Lighting systems
The following lists give a first guid­ance for lighting levels in work ar­eas. Final figures must be obtained from the applicable Rules & Regu­lations under contract. 

   1.1.  Living areas:

Captain class dayroom 150 lx
Captain class bedroom 100 lx
Cabin 100 lx
State -/passenger room 100 lx
On desk 250 lx
Berth at pillow 200 lx
Mirror front 200 lx
Bathroom 50 lx
Lavatory/ toilet 50 lx
Barber shop 200 lx
Dining saloon/messroom200 lx
Dining table 250 lx
Recreation room 200 lx
Gymnasium 200 lx
Bars/lounges 50 lx
Shopping area 200 lx
Passages/ alleyways 50 lx
Staircases 50 lx
Passenger entrance 100 lx
Outer passage 10 lx
Swimming pool 50 lx

1.2.  Navigation area:
Wheelhouse 50 lx
Chart room 50 lx
Chart table 250 lx
centre spotlights Radio operator table 250 lx
centre spot lights Pilot house 200 lx

   1.3. Service areas

   
1.4. Operating areas


    2. Lighting sources
 The different types of light sources have very different efficiencies and life times.

      
When comparing LEDs with traditional halogen spotlights, energy savings of 50% can be attained not only in lighting power, but additionally in the amount of heat produced, which results in less cooling to be done by the air-conditioning system.
Induction lights are not dimmable or available in large types and are consid­ered not suitable for domestic use.   

    3. Types of lighting systems

Normal lighting systems are all the systems supplied by the main pow­er source.

The normal lighting system has to be arranged in such a way that a fire or other casualty in the spaces containing the emergency genera­tor, transforming equipment and emergency lighting switchboard does not have any effect on the main lighting system.

Emergency lighting systems must be independent of the main power source and the spaces containing it. Emergency lighting can be subdi­vided into general, transitional and supplementary lighting.

Escape route or low location light­ing is required for passenger ships and has to be independent of other fire zones by means of local power supply units with batteries or fire resistant cables, both ensuring availability of the system for one hour.

Transitional emergency lighting must come from a separate battery, rated for half an hour and has to be adequate to permit safe evacuation in an emergency.   


The picture on the previous page (bottom, right) shows var­ious types of plugs for lighting systems. In Europe the two largest coun­tries France and Germany have developed a plug for earthed circuits that fits in both national standards. This plug combines the German rim earth with the French third pin earth and is used now in most European countries. Italy and Great Britain as well as Switzerland are still differ­ent but the unearthed European plug fits in the sockets of Swit- serland and Italy.

Lux is the value for light inten­sity. Lx in short. Lumen is the value for light ra­diation, or the quantity of light in a lightbeam. 1 Lux = 1 Lumen / sq.m.

    4.  Lighting Calculations

Making lighting calculations dur­ing the design period and using the outcome for the installation helps to avoid costly modifications during completion when the actual lighting levels are measured.

There are many lighting calculation programs on the market, both com­mercial and non-commercial.  

    5.  Lighting Measurements

On completion the lighting levels should be measured under opera­tional conditions i.e. with all equip­ment installed and the accommo­dation spaces with all furniture.

For the lighting measurements a calibrated instrument should be used and the measured data pre­sented in a report. The newer types of lighting measuring instru­ments have data logging which can be transferred to a PC for further processing.


Dialux overview lighting lay-out Drilling Vessel

Dialux result of lighting calculations in false colours


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