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Sea and river vessels are objects of increased fire danger, because. are constructively small in size, in which a large number of power and electrical equipment are usually located. Especially fire dangerous cargo vessels (tankers) carry combustible substances and materials .
The most frequent causes of fires on ships are - malfunctions in the power grid; smoking outside specially equipped places; carrying out of electric welding works with infringement of safety rules; careless handling of flammable substances.
When choosing fire fighting equipment, one must take into account the complexity of the ship's construction: the amount of electrical equipment and inflammable materials in each room, as well as the purpose of the vessel.
The leading means of extinguishing fires on the ship is water. For this purpose, the ship is equipped with an annular and linear pipeline, deluge sprayers and sprinkler installations, as well as special pumps.
But in such places on the ship, where the use of automatics for the elimination of burning is inexpedient, fire extinguishers are used:
Powder fire extinguishers belong to universal means of extinguishing, tk. suppress the combustion of solid, liquid, gaseous substances and electrical installations that are under voltage up to 1000 V. They are used to eliminate emergencies in small rooms, bulkheads, compartments.
The fire extinguishing compound (a mixture of ammonium and phosphorus) covers a thick layer of the fire and prevents access of oxygen to the ignition zone, but the damaged surface will remain strongly heated. This can cause a re-ignition.
Chladone fire extinguishers can be used in cases of not only rapid and effective extinguishing of the ignition point of ignition of Class B or C burning of liquids or gaseous matter, but also the saving of material values. Halogen-free quenching can be used to extinguish electrical installations under 110 KV if the combustion process is in the initial stage. Fire extinguishing medium in fire extinguishers - a gaseous hydrocarbon mixture (chladon) is similar to that used as a coolant for refrigeration plants.
Foam fire extinguishersA foam obtained by chemical or air-mechanical means is used to eliminate fire. Foam covers the source of ignition and prevents the penetration of oxygen, significantly reducing the burning process. The water content of the solution creates a cooling effect. Air foam fire extinguishers cope with the combustion of solid substances of Class A or flammable liquids of Class B. Foam extinguishers can only be used inside the heated room, because At a negative air temperature, the extinguishing solution will freeze.
Chemical foam fire extinguisherson ships are rarely used because of their inefficiency. Sodium hydrogencarbonate and surfactants, which form the basis of the extinguishing mixture, quickly block the access of oxygen to the flame. But the problem is a lot of manipulation just before the fire, which takes a lot of time. At the right time, the fire extinguisher may not work because of such manipulations. ОХП are suitable only for the elimination of combustion of those substances and materials that do not react with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate. To extinguish burning electrical installations, it is prohibited to use OXF, because the foam is a dielectric.
Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers use to extinguish the ignition of various materials and current-carrying elements of equipment, except for metals that can burn and in the absence of oxygen in the air (magnesium and aluminum). UV is preferably used in engine rooms, where their use does not cause damage to the object of ignition, and the fire-extinguishing contents of the balloon will not leave dust or stains on any surface. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers can be stored both indoors and on open decks where there is no exposure to direct sunlight and the air temperature does not exceed 50 ° C.
The drawbacks include a small range of the release of crystallized carbon dioxide, which causes the crew or passengers involved in extinguishing a fire to be in close proximity to the fire and endangered. Do not use 2 or more carbon dioxide fire extinguishers in the same room. an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the air can cause poisoning, followed by irritation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and further inhibition of respiratory function.